Combat Yoga Fitness

Studies

There are many studies demonstrating the positive benefits of yoga for a variety of health conditions, especially as a stress reduction component. Its benefits are recognized as a viable alternative by many medical professionals.

 

Anxiety:

Bernhard, J., Kristeller, J. and Kabat-Zinn, J. Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as a adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) 19:572-73.

McCaul, K.D., Solomon, S. and Holmes, D.S. (1979) Effects of paced respiration and expectation on the physiological and psychological responses to threat. J. Pers. Soc.Psychol., 37:564-571.

Cappo, B.M. And Holmes, D.S. (1984) The utility of prolonged respiratory exhalation for reducing physiological and psychological arousal in non-threatening and threateningsituations. J. Psychosomat. Res., 28:265-273.

Clark, D.M., Salkovskis, P.M. And Chalkley, A.J. (1985) Respiratory control as atreatment for panic attacks. J. Behavo. Ther. Exper. Psychiat., 16:22-30.

Javnbakht M, Hejazi Kenari R, Ghasemi M. Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009 May;15(2):102-4.

Vahia NS, Doongaji DR, Jeste DV, et al. Further experience with the therapy based uponconcepts of Patanjali in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Indian J Psychiatry1973;15:32–7.

Vahia NS, Doongaji DR, Jeste DV, Ravindranath S, Kapoor SN, Ardhapurkar I. Psychophysiologic therapy based on the concepts of Patanjail. A new approach to thetreatment of neurotic and psychosomatic disorders. Am J Psychother. 1973 Oct;27(4):557-65

Harrigan, J. M. A component analysis of yoga: The effects of diaphragmatic breathing and stretching postures on anxiety, personality and somatic/behavioral complaints. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1981, 42(4-A):1489.

Platania-Solazzo A, Field TM, Blank J, Seligman F, Kuhn C, Schanberg S, Saab P. Relaxation therapy reduces anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. ActaPaedopsychiatr 1992;55(2):115-20

Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, Langhorst J, Ludtke R, Esch T, Stefano GB, Dobos GJ. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Dec;11(12):CR555-561.

Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L.G., Fletcher, K., Pbert, L., Linderking, W., Santorelli, S. F., Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry (1992) 149:936-943.

J., Fletcher, K. and Kabat-Zinn, J., Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of amindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry (1995) 17:192-200.

Kabat-Zinn, J., Chapman, A. and Salmon, P., The relationship of cognitive and somatic components of anxiety to patient preference for alternative relaxation techniques. Mind/Body

Medicine (1997) 2:101-109. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at http://www.drmccall.com/

Asthma:

Bhole MV. Treatment of bronchial asthma by yogic methods: A report. Yoga-Mimamsa,Jan 1967, 9 (3):33-41.

Bhagwat JM, Soman AM, Bhole MV. Yogic treatment of bronchial asthma: A medical report. Yoga-Mimamsa, Oct 1981, 20(3):1-12.

Singh V, Wisniewski A, Britton J, Tattersfield A. Effect of yoga breathing exercises(pranayama) on airway reactivity in subjects with asthma. Lancet. 1990 Jun 9;335(8702):1381-3.

Jain SC, Talukdar B. Evaluation of yoga therapy programme for patients of bronchialasthma. Singapore Med J. 1993 Aug;34(4):306-8.

Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study. Br Med J.1985 Oct 19;291(6502):1077-9.

Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchialasthma: a 3-54-month prospective study. J Asthma. 1986;23(3):123-3

Sabina AB, Williams AL, Wall HK, Bansal S, Chupp G, Katz DL. Yoga intervention for adults with mild-to-moderate asthma: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005 May;94(5):543-8. A PDF of this document can be downloaded at www.DrMcCall.com

Back Pain:

Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R. The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. J Behav Med. 1985 Jun;8(2):163-90.

Tekur P, Singphow C, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N. Effect of short-term intensive yoga program on pain, functional disability and spinal flexibility in chronic low back pain: a randomized control study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):637-44. PubMed PMID: 18673078.

Galantino ML, Bzdewka TM, Eissler-Russo J, et al. The impact of modified Hatha yoga on chronic low back pain: a pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med 2004; 10:56-58.

Williams K, Steinberg L, Petronis J. Therapeutic application of Iyengar yoga for healing chronic low back pain. International Journal of Yoga Therapy. 2003;13:55-67.

Williams KA, Petronis J, Smith D, Goodrich D, Wu J, Ravi N, Doyle EJ Jr, Gregory Juckett R, Munoz Kolar M, Gross R, Steinberg L. Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain. 2005 May;115(1-2):107-17.

Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Erro J, Miglioretti DL, Deyo RA. Comparing yoga, exercise, and a self-care book for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Dec 20;143(12):849-56.

Groessl EJ, Weingart KR, Aschbacher K, Pada L, Baxi S. Yoga for veterans with chronic low-back pain. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov;14(9):1123-9. PubMed PMID: 18991515. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at http://www.drmccall.com/

Balance Problems:

Hart CE, Tracy BL. Yoga as steadiness training: effects on motor variability in young adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Sep;22(5):1659-69.

Brown KD, Koziol JA, Lotz M. A yoga-based exercise program to reduce the risk of falls in seniors: a pilot and feasibility study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):454-7.

Cancer:

Culos-Reed, S, Carlson, LE, et al, Discovering the physical and psychological benefits of yoga for cancer survivors, International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2004 (14), 45-52.

Cohen L, Warneke C, et al. Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma. Cancer. 2004 May 15;100(10):2253-60.

Rao MR, Raghuram N, Nagendra HR, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Diwakar RB, Patil S, Bilimagga SR, Rao N, Varambally S. Anxiolytic effects of a yoga program in early breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2009 Jan;17(1):1-8. Epub 2008 Oct 14. PubMed PMID: 19114222.

Moadel AB, Shah C, Wylie-Rosett J, Harris MS, Patel SR, Hall CB, Sparano JA. Randomized controlled trial of yoga among a multiethnic sample of breast cancer patients: effects on quality of life. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 1;25(28):4387-95.

Danhauer SC, Mihalko SL, Russell GB, Campbell CR, Felder L, Daley K, Levine EA. Restorative yoga for women with breast cancer: findings from a randomized pilot study. Psychooncology. 2009 Apr;18(4):360-8.

Raghavendra RM, Vadiraja HS, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR, Rekha M, Vanitha N, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Vishweshwara MS, Madhavi YS, Ajaikumar BS, Ramesh BS, Nalini R, Kumar V. Effects of a yoga program on cortisol rhythm and mood states in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2009 Mar;8(1):37-46.

Duncan MD, Leis A, Taylor-Brown JW. Impact and outcomes of an iyengar yoga program in a cancer centre. Curr Oncol. 2008 Aug;15 Suppl 2:s109.es72-8. PubMed PMID: 18769575.

Speca M, Carlson LE, Goodey E, Angen M, A randomized, wait-list controlled clinical trial: the effect of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med 2000 Sep-Oct;62(5):613-22.

Walker LG, Walker MB, et al. guided imagery and relaxation therapy can modify host defences in women receiving treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. Br J Surg 1997 ;84(1S):31. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at www.DrMcCall.com

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

Garfinkel MS, Singhal A, Katz WA, Allan DA, Reshetar R, Schumacher HR Jr. Yogabased intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1601-3.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (e.g. Emphysema):  

Tandon MK. Adjunct treatment with yoga in chronic severe airways obstruction. Thorax. 1978 Aug;33(4):514-7.

Kulpati DD, Kamath RK, Chauhan MR. The influence of physical conditioning by yogasanas and breathing exercises in patients of chronic obstructive lung disease. J Assoc. Physicians India. 1982 Dec;30(12):865-8.

Pomidori L, Campigotto F, Amatya TM, Bernardi L, Cogo A. Efficacy and tolerability of yoga breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2009 Mar-Apr;29(2):133-7.

Donesky-Cuenco D, Nguyen HQ, Paul S, Carrieri-Kohlman V. Yoga therapy decreases dyspnea-related distress and improves functional performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):225-34.

Behera D. Yoga therapy in chronic bronchitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 1998 Feb;46(2):207-8.

Congestive Heart failure:

Bernardi L, Spadacini G, Bellwon J, Hajric R, Roskamm H, Frey AW. Effect of breathing rate on oxygen saturation and exercise performance in chronic heart failure. Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1308-11.

Pullen PR, Nagamia SH, Mehta PK, Thompson WR, Benardot D, Hammoud R, Parrott JM, Sola S, Khan BV. Effects of yoga on inflammation and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail. 2008 Jun;14(5):407-13. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at www.DrMcCall.com

Depression:

Khumar SS, Kaur P, Kaur S. Effectiveness of shavasana on depression among university students. Indian J Clin Psychol 1993; 20: 82-87.

Woolery A, Myers H, Sternlieb B, Zeltzer L. A yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar Apr;10(2):60-3

Shapiro D, Cook IA, Davydov DM, Ottaviani C, Leuchter AF, Abrams M. Yoga as a Complementary Treatment of Depression: Effects of Traits and Moods on Treatment Outcome. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Dec;4(4):493 502.

Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J. Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a  mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1995 May;17(3):192 200.

Butler LD, Waelde LC, Hastings TA, Chen XH, Symons B, Marshall J, Kaufman A, Nagy TF, Blasey CM, Seibert EO, Spiegel D. Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial. J Clin Psychol. 2008 Jul;64(7):806-20.

Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF, Urbanowski F, Harrington A, Bonus K, Sheridan JF. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):564- 70.  A PDF of the document can be downloaded at www.DrMcCall.com

Heart Disease:

Friedell, A. (1948). Automatic attentive breathing in angina pectoris. Minnesota  Medicine, 31, 875-881.

Bernardi L, Spadacini G, et al. Effect of breathing rate on oxygen saturation and exercise performance in chronic heart failure. Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1308-11.

Ornish DM, Scherwitz LW, Doody RS, Kesten D, McLanahan SM, Brown SE, DePuey G, Sonnemaker R, Haynes C, Lester J, McAllister GK, Hall RJ, Burdine JA, Gotto AM. Effects of stress management training and dietary changes in treating ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 1983;249:54-59

Ornish DM, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary atherosclerosis? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. The Lancet. 1990; 336:129 133.

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, et al. Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification. JAMA. 1995;274:894-901.

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, et al. Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification. JAMA. 1995;274:894-901.

Koertge J, Weidner G, Elliott-Eller M, Scherwitz L, Merritt-Worden TA, Marlin R, Lipsenthal L, Guarneri M, Finkel R, Saunders Jr DE, McCormac P, Scheer JM, Collins RE, Ornish D. Improvement in medical risk factors and quality of life in women and men with coronary artery disease in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jun 1;91(11):1316-22.

Ornish D. Avoiding revascularization with lifestyle changes: The Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Nov 26;82(10B):72T-76T.

Yogendra J, Yogendra HJ, Ambardekar S, Lele RD, Shetty S, Dave M, Husein N. Beneficial effects of yoga lifestyle on reversibility of ischaemic heart disease: caring heart project of International Board of Yoga. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Apr;52:283-9.

Mahajan AS, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U. Lipid profile of coronary risk subjects following yogic lifestyle intervention. Indian Heart J. 1999 Jan-Feb;51(1):37-40.

Khare KC; Rai S. Study of lipid profile in post myocardial infarction subjects following yogic life style intervention. Indian Practitioner. 2002 Jun; 55(6): 369-73.

Singh RB, Singh NK, Rastogi SS, Mani UV, Niaz MA. Effects of diet and lifestyle changes on atherosclerotic risk factors after 24 weeks on the Indian Diet Heart Study. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Jun 1;71(15):1283-8. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at www.DrMcCall.com

High Blood Pressure:

C. H. Patel, "Yoga and bio-feedback in the management of hypertension," Lancet, vol. 2,no. 837, pp. 1053-5, 1973.

Patel C, "12-month follow-up of yoga and bio-feedback in the management of hypertension.", Lancet, v1, n7898, Jan 11 1975, pp. 62-4.

Sundar S, Agrawal S, Singh V, Bhattacharya S, Udupa K, Vaish S. Role of yoga in management of essential hypertension. Acta Cardiol 1984; 39: 203-8

Datey KK, Deshmukh SN, Dalvi CP, Vinekar SL. "Shavasan": A yogic exercise in the management of hypertension. Angiology. 1969 Jun;20(6):325-33.

Murugesan R., Govindarajulu, N., Bera, TK. Effect of selected yogic practices on the management of hypertension. Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology. (2000). 44,207-10.

Alexander CN, Schneider RH, et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older

African Americans. II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension. 1996 Aug;28(2):228-37.

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of transcendental meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. Am J Hypertens. 2004 Apr;17(4):366-9.

Nonpharmacologic treatment of resistant hypertensives by Device-Guided slow breathing exercises by Viskoper R, Shapira I, et al, Am J Hypertens. 2003 Jun;16(6):484-7. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at http://www.drmccall.com/ 

Insomnia:

Perceived benefits in a behavioral-medicine insomnia program: a clinical report, by Jacobs GD, Benson H and Friedman R in the American Journal of Medicine, 1996 Feb;100(2):212-6.

Khalsa SB. Treatment of chronic insomnia with yoga: a preliminary study with sleep-wake diaries. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Dec;29(4):269-78.

Cohen L, Warneke C, et al. Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma. Cancer. 2004, May 15;100(10):2253-60.

Migraine and Tension Headaches:

John PJ, Sharma N, Sharma CM, Kankane A. Effectiveness of yoga therapy in the treatment of migraine without aura: a randomized controlled trial. Headache. 2007May;47(5):654-61. PubMed PMID: 17501846.

Kabat-Zinn J. An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1982 Apr;4(1):33 47.

Latha S & KV Kaliappan. Efficacy of yoga therapy in the management of headaches. Journal of Indian Psychology, 1992, Vol.10, Nos.1& 2 p. 41-47

Prabhakar, S.; Verma, S.K.; Grover, P.; Chopra, J.S. Role of Yoga in the treatment of Psychogenic Headache. Neurology India 1991 Jan; (1)

Multiple Sclerosis:

Oken BS, Kishiyama S, Zajdel D, Bourdette D, Carlsen J, Haas M, Hugos C, Kraemer DF, Lawrence J, Mass M. Randomized controlled trial of yoga and exercise in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2004 Jun 8;62(11):2058-64.

Neurosis:

Vahia NS, Doongaji DR, Jeste DV, Kapoor SM, Ardhapurkar I and Ravindranath S: Further experience with the therapy based upon concepts of Patanjali in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 15:32-37, 1973.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD):

Shannahoff-Khalsa DS, Beckett LR. Clinical case report: efficacy of yogic techniques in  the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorders. Int J Neurosci. 1996 Mar;85(1-2):1-17.

Shannahoff-Khalsa, DS, Ray LE, Levine, S, Gallen, CC, Schwartz, BJ, Sidorowich, JJ, Randomized Controlled Trial of Yogic Meditation Techniques for Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, CNS Spectrums: The International Journal of NeuropsychiatricMedicine, vol 4, no. 12, pp 34-46, 1999.

Osteoporosis:

Greendale GA, McDivit A, Carpenter A, Seeger L, Huang MH. Yoga for women with hyperkyphosis: results of a pilot study. Am J Public Health. 2002 Oct;92(10):1611-4.

Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Arthritis:

Garfinkel MS, Schumacher HR Jr, Husain A, Levy M, Reshetar RA. Evaluation of a yoga based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2341-3.

Kolasinski SL, Garfinkel M, Tsai AG, Matz W, Dyke AV, Schumacher HR. Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):689-93.

Kabat-Zinn J. An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminaryresults. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1982 Apr;4(1):33 47.

Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R. The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. J Behav Med. 1985 Jun;8(2):163-90. A PDF of the document can be downloaded at http://www.drmccall.com/

Excerpts and resources from Timothy McCall, M.D